By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Dov M. Gabbay, Rudolf Kruse (eds.)

This booklet comprises major survey papers at the numerous elements of Abduction, either logical and numerical techniques. Abduction is significant to all components of utilized reasoning, together with man made intelligence, philosophy of technological know-how, laptop studying, info mining and choice conception, in addition to good judgment itself.

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3 51 The Knowledge-level Approach The knowledge-level approach was proposed by Levesque (cf. [Levesque, 1989]) and is based on a model of belief. Abduction is defined with respect to epistemic states and thus is independent of the symbolic representation. In the following we first outline abduction in Leveque's logic of implicit and explicit belief. Then we consider semantic accounts for abduction where the notions of explanation and preference between different explanations are defined in terms of a logic for abduction and the observation need not be consistent with the domain theory.

The corresponding relationships are expressed in the logical theory by material implication going from cause to effects. The results of Konolige show that this form of abductive reasoning can also be carried out with the consistency-based method of Reiter. In fact, a transformation is described by which abductive explanations can be generated or deduced respectively. For details see [Konolige, 1990]. GABRIELE PAUL 46 Abduction in Logic Programming Eshgi and Kowalski (cf. [Eshghi and Kowalski, 1988]) consider abduction in the context of logic programming with integrity constraints.

Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984. [Thompson and Mooney, 1994) C. A. Thompson and Raymond J. Mooney. Inductive learning for abductive diagnosis. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artijiciallntelligence, pages 664-669, Seattle, WA, August 1994. [Wang,2000) Pei Wang. Unified inference in extended syllogism. In Flach and Kakas (2000). [Yamamoto, 2000) Akihiro Yamamoto. Using abduction for induction based on bottom generalization. In Flach and Kakas [2(00). GABRIELE PAUL AI APPROACHES TO ABDUCTION INTRODUCTION Abductive reasoning has gained increasing interest in many fields of AI research.